My Favorite Books From 2022

As I've mentioned before, 2022 was a watershed year for my reading capacity, and while it is probably a little late in the new year for a retrospective post, I did want to take some time and expressly call out, and recommend, a few of the books I read last year.

In no particular order, my favorite books last year were:

Never the Wind, Francesco Dimitri

This book was an absolute joy to read. It's a coming-of-age, ghost story set in nineties Italy, and it is just so well written and charming that I found myself spellbound by every page. Give this one a go if you're in the mood for some excellent fiction.

What Diplomats Do, Brian Sir Barder

This one I read for a yet-unannounced project I'm working on, and while I was hoping the book would be useful to me, I was not prepared for just how much fun it would be to work through. The author, a former U.K. Diplomat, spends as much time explaining the intricacies of overseas diplomacy as he does fictionalizing his time abroad and telling simply incredible stories about how and why certain diplomatic agreements were reached.

A Farewell to Arms, Earnest Hemingway

I read a lot of Hemingway last year, and this one was my favorite. A classic for a reason, and an excellent read. I did also like The Sun Also Rises.

The Matter of the Gods, Clifford Ando

This one, I'll admit, was a bit tough to get through. It's a treatise on Roman Religion, but it is written by and for historians and classical theologians. I picked this up after scouring the citations for one of my favorite blogs, and while the book assumes you've already read the ancient classics, and the medieval christian rebuttals to those texts, (which I have not) it was still an interesting read. Ancient mysticism is fascinating to me, and if the topic sounds enticing to you then I'd recommend skimming through this one. A deep read might be a bit too intense.

Existential Physics, Sabine Hossenfelder

Sabine is one of my favorite YouTubers, and her book is basically just more of the same. The book is a fun romp through many different parts of Theoretical Physics and both acts as a guide to what modern science can, and cannot, hope to explain. It's a good reminder, from the perspective of a physicist, that while science has given us the modern world, it cannot ever hope to solve some very important questions.

A Very Special Anniversary

Today marks the 10 year anniversary of the first post on this blog. It's been a wild ride writing for here, and I never would have predicted that after all this time I'd still be doing this.

For posterity, here are a few links that show how the site itself has evolved over the intervening years, though the site itself isn't really the most important thing to celebrate today.

Really today is special because it gives me the time to reflect on what writing for this blog has taught me. Since writing the first version of this blog I went from being a college student interested in programming to being a professional and independent software developer. In many ways I have achieved what I set out to do all those years ago, though of course not in the way I originally envisioned.

Blogging has been a truly transformational hobby for me. Like many people, I write to think. The process of making something —writing in this case— helps me solidify my own opinion on a topic and putting my thoughts to words helps me consolidate and organize them in a way that no other way does.

This blog has also served as an unofficial resumé for me on several different occasions. I often tell people who are just starting out to set up a blog themselves. You don't have to build your own; you can just use Wordpress. But having a public presence filled with your own complex thoughts on a number of topics helps prospective employers understand your inner machinations. It shows them that you know how to think just like a resumé would. My blog and public Github projects have gotten me just as far (if not further) than an actual resumé.

More than that though, blogging here has given me a chance to get my thoughts out into the world. I'm incredibly fortunate that my writing is occasionally interesting to others and that a handful of my posts have gone micro-viral thanks to sites like Hacker News. To everyone who clicked on one of my posts: thank you. To all of you who actually read the post: thanks even more.

The internet continues to be a force we barely understand, but here I've gotten the chance to experiment, try things, fail, and get back up again. And I've tried to bring you all along with me as I've found out the answers to all sorts of questions.

Thank you all for reading, and here's to another ten years.

On The Web, The Best Outcome Is Email

Like many out there, I've been thinking a lot lately about the Open Web. As many readers are no doubt aware, the chaos at Twitter lately has driven a lot of people off the platform and onto more fledgling alternatives. Mastodon in particular has seen huge spikes in growth recently and I doubt that growth will slow until either the platform succumbs to the load or the chaos at Twitter ends and users return to the platform.

A chart of Mastodon's recent user growth with large spikes around significant Twitter changes
Image credit to Esteban Moro

While these recent developments have been great for Mastodon as a platform, only time will tell if the Fediverse at-large will rise to the occasion. There's been a lot of talk about the website, but the real story is the sudden surge in usage of the underlying ActivityPub federation protocol that powers it. Very briefly, ActivityPub is a protocol that allows for disparate social media sites to talk to each other, sharing likes, posts, follows, and other social media interactions. Widespread adoption of such a standard on the Web would make it possible to finally break the tyranny of the Network Effect and allow for a wide swath of new Social Networks to emerge. These new networks would be free of the burden to attract a "critical mass" of users to remain viable as every user would be able to communicate and interact with users of any other ActivityPub-capable social platform.

The hurdle that Mastodon —and the swath of other ActivityPub sites like it— must overcome is that they all collectively must reach a critical mass in order to become viable in today's siloed social media landscape. In order to free us from critical mass, Mastodon must attain it.

The fog of current events leave many questions so far unanswered, and only time will tell what path we choose to follow, but for now it is not known whether or not Mastodon will ever reach this critical point and become a sizable player in the social media space. Tumblr's plans to enable ActivityPub support will certainly help the broader Fediverse grow, but I doubt it will be enough on its own to push the project over the edge and into relevancy with the general public, but only time will tell.

Sailing Rough Seas

I've been a vocal supporter of the Open Web for over a decade, but as anyone with a strongly-held and niche belief knows, it can be exhausting to see the world march on impartial to your goals. At my worst, I've grown rather jaded about the possibility of a truly Open Social Web. Like I'm sure many dentists, if given the chance, would choose to wave a magic wand and force all of us to floss our teeth more, I would —if I could— force social media sites to interoperate using a freely open standard, but that's just not how the world works.

For years, I've thought the momentum had settled and that we would —given no other outside forces— be on a path to ever-increasing centralization on the Web, both on and off social media. There are of course many technical solutions to centralization, but I'll admit that I believe the forces of power, control, and profits too strong a wind for the little boat of federation to sail. The only other boats to make the journey set out long ago: both web browsers and email were products of another era on the Internet and I doubt they could come up in this one.

I now hold that the most likely path to achieving a truly interoperable Open Web is through government regulation. I've written before about how Congress is mulling over the idea of mandating Social Media interoperability and I support that effort, but regulation is a difficult stick to wield. The backbones of the modern Web: the web browser and email provider, didn't need laws to force them into interoperability. They were designed as such from the start, and that still is the best way for a technology to progress. Like the situation with phone networks last century, regulation might be the only force powerful enough to push a Social Web forward. I still hope that social media follows a similar path and that we all hold hands and merrily walk into the sunset of a federated world, but I believe that things are likely too far gone; that it never can or will happen like that again.

I have grown fairly confident in this belief, and like any belief too strongly-held it blinded me to what happened next.

An Impetus of Change

Elon Musk's chaotic and seemingly-inept takeover of Twitter shocked many people into giving up on the platform. Thousands upon thousands fled to whatever refuge they could find. Mastodon was an obvious choice for techies to flock to, but its Mastodon's growing segment of less technical users that interests me. Perhaps this new flood of growth holds —and assuming the platform in general and in particular can withstand it— there exists a real possibility that the platform gains critical mass and enters public awareness. It may already be arriving there. The San Diego Union Tribune ran a story last sunday (in print) aiming to help elderly users navigate the migration to Mastodon. That was something I certainly hadn't seen coming.

I'll say this: if the trend holds and Mastodon does continue growing, and if it does gain a foothold as a small but nevertheless notable social platform it would mean that Elon fumbled his way into giving the Open Web the single biggest gift it has received in a decade and certainly the most unintentional one. It would be a poetically ironic moment indeed.

Again though, I'll admit that I am skeptical such a trend will hold. Social media platforms come and go and small ones rarely stick around very long. Mastodon will of course still exist —the Fediverse cannot be killed— but falling out of public consciousness would be a de facto death.

A Sobering Reality

Whether the crazed antics of one man can disrupt the seemingly natural flow of centralization on the Web is doubtful, and I still believe that is more likely than not that regulation will be required to force social media companies to interoperate. What's more, it isn't clear that such regulation could or would come to be in the United States. It might; it might not. The future, as always, remains unclear.

That said, Mastodon (and ActivityPub more broadly) have the potential to remake social networking on the Web in a magnitude that I don't think many fully realize. Indeed some do realize it, but they are often gripped by a naïve optimism I simply cannot share: a blue-sky fantasy that could never come to pass. The broader narrative though seems to take the opposite view: that even if Mastodon (and the Fediverse) were to become relevant, that it simply wouldn't matter very much. They argue that federation and decentralization simply cannot compete with monied interests and that over time the Open Web would re-centralize into one or two big players. Indeed I find myself sympathetic to this view, even though I don't like its conclusions.

I, however, would like to offer a third option for the future of the Social Web: one that is both radically transformative and yet utterly boring at the same time.

What If It's All Just Email, Man?

I love email. I genuinely do. I love it in a way that often raises eyebrows among nearly everyone I encounter, even my fellow techie-types. Why do I love email? Because it, like the Web itself has remained true to the promise of the Internet even after it made unavoidable contact with the real world. Let me explain:

Email, like the Web itself, is a federated system. No one controls the whole thing and while there are a few very large players in the Email space, none of them has the ability to direct its evolution outright. Gmail is huge and partially non-standard, but the system still works. Since its inception, anyone with an email address has been able to email anyone else so long as they know or can guess the email address they want to reach. It's not a perfect system, no (see: spam, blocklisting, etc) but it's damn good and email has utterly transformed how the world does business and it has democratized communication more than almost any other Internet technology to date.

What's more, barring some technical hurdles, anyone with some funding can start an email hosting company. And while it's not practical for single individuals to run their own email server today, it is technically possible and many people indeed do just that. Every year new Email apps and services emerge while others die. The ecosystem is dynamic, healthy, and growing with every new entrant to the Internet. The standard is open, widely available, and —unlike social media accounts— truly universal. Nearly everyone on the Internet has an email address, and that seems set to be true for decades to come.

We need no better signifier of Email's complete and utter domination today than the simple fact that email clients come installed on almost every operating system known to man. That's only possible because of its decentralized, universal, and long-lived history. I long for the day that an ActivityPub-powered "Social" app ships with macOS and Windows like Mail does today.

A truly federated macOS dock When a mail-like "" ships on macOS, we will have won.

Now, most people I talk to about this tell me they hate their email. It's a spam and junk-filled box full of nothing but coupons, ads, and check-ins from their boss. And I agree. It is just that. Indeed one of the problems with decentralized and federated technologies is exactly that: they're filled with spam, junk, and mixed uses. But that mundanity is the true magic.

Email has so throughly engrained itself in the modern world that we've stopped seeing any of the good it has brought and only the bad; a truer mark of success there isn't (see: liberal democracy, the post office, web browsers, the phone network, etc).

Should federated social media succeed: whether by natural growth, by chaos at Twitter, or by eventual regulation, its ultimate fate can and should be the fate of email. If somehow social media is largely run by enormous companies surrounded by a large collection of smaller providers all talking to each other over the same interoperable, open protocol then the Open Web will have won. Of course this won't be a win for those who imagine a truly decentralized Internet devoid of large actors, but it will be a success as judged by the best examples the Internet has so far given us.

The Social Web of the future isn't complete decentralization or a network of innumerable federated micro-instances. It isn't a Web powered by anonymous cryptocurrencies. It may yet be the Web we have now, should regulatory attempts fail and natural forces be insurmountable. But if things go right and the stars align the Social Web could become like Email, and that would be transformationally mundane.

A Drawing Every Day!

Today's Drawing of the Day. Yes it is live

I love to just mess around with computers. It's a fun way to spend an idle evening, and last night I set up a little script that could generate random line drawings using my little pdraw project from a while back. The script generates a new image every day and places it in a web-accessible place that I can then link to. This morning I finished up my little project by adding another script that can generate an RSS feed for the list of images and voila!

You can find each day's Drawing of the Day here. The page also has its own, dedicated RSS Feed so give that a follow if you're interested.

The script to generate all of this was a fun little experiment that involved pdraw, imagemagick, and xvfb. As with all bash projects it involves no shortage of little hacks (including but not limited to a manual, string-joining, feed-generator function). Overall its a great example of just how powerful simple tools can be.

As an aside, it was projects like this that were my original introduction to programming and to this day they continue to be one of the most fun parts of it for me. Don't get me wrong, I do enjoy building fully-fledged web apps, but throwing little scripts together is also a ton of fun. Hopefully you all enjoy these daily line drawings as much as I enjoyed making them available.

Reading Milestones, Attention Spans, And Cool Charts

Today marks a special occasion. According to my knowledge, I have read more books in 2022 than in any other single year of my life. Better yet, the previous three years are a high-water mark over most of the previous decade.

A chart from the iOS App Book Track depicting books read per year. 2022 is the highest.

Charts via the excellent app Booktrack for iOS/macOS

As a kid I considered myself an average reader. In fact book reading was one of the very few homework assignments I occasionally completed. In high school I read a fairly significant amount of Science Fiction and Fantasy as well as the occasional book of Physics or Philosophy. Once I got to college though, my recreational reading slowly went by the wayside until the end of my senior year and the year that followed. Over the intervening years I've slowly recovered my habit of reading regularly. However, as you can see something changed in 2020 (something quite obvious to everyone).

With significantly more idle time during the early COVID lockdowns, my recreational reading skyrocketed. I was reading at a pace my adult self had never known. In fact, until recently I'd assumed that 2020 would likely be a personal record, and one that would stay unbroken for a while. That turned out to not be the case!

Tracking My Reading

I recently described how I've tracked my steps for over eight years, but until recently I'd never thought about tracking my reading habits. I tried using Goodreads for a while, but the whole social-network component of it never sat well with me. Additionally, I'd always wanted to have more access to statistics about which books I've purchased and which of those I've actually read. Goodreads can do this, but I never liked the feel of it. Enter Booktrack!

More charts A chart from the iOS App Book Track depicting a summary of my reading lately. A chart from the iOS App Book Track depicting books read per day this week.

Booktrack is a really cool indie app that lets you keep track of your entire book collection. Importantly it is available for both iOS and macOS, and it provides me with some oh-so-lovely charts and statistics. I don't really have much more to say about the app other than it's great and you should try it, but yeah. It's great, and you should try it. What's more you'd be supporting an indie developer by doing so.

Deliberate Acts of Reading

Since graduating high school over a decade ago, my reading preferences have largely pivoted away from Sci-Fi and Fantasy and toward Non-Fiction, especially history, politics, and public policy. That said my love of Fantasy never died, I just stopped reading it; instead I listened to it.

Now, I consider listening to audiobooks to be fundamentally equivalent to reading physical books in almost every way. For me though, the act of sitting down to read a book, as opposed to listening while doing something else, is a much more conscious and deliberate act. I've recently gone back to reading Fiction again. I've done this partly to give myself a break from Non-Fiction, and partially to rediscover the joy of actually reading fiction with my eyeballs.

I still love listening to books and I will of course continue to do so, but sitting down with a book is a fundamentally different activity than listening to one. Like many people I've found my own attention span shrinking as I spend more and more time online. I think that's a bad thing, and I think sitting down with a book helps me re-expand that attention span where listening to a book doesn't (for me at least). These past three years then have been not just a personal milestone for me in terms of my ability to read more books, but they've also been a conscious exercise in expanding my own attention span and improving my ability to think. Both of those are important metrics to track in this distraction-filled time we live in.


I know many people might look at my reading statistics and laugh. Nineteen books might not seem like a lot to some, but it's a ton for me, and while I'll never truly be able to recover my book-reading numbers from before 2020 — and especially not from a decade ago — I am fairly confident that I'm correct when I say 2022 has truly been a great year for my reading habits. Let's hope the trend continues and I don't fall of the train anytime soon.

Stargazing Pictures

Last night I went stargazing with a few friends, and while the weather did conspire against us we did get a few good chances to see the stars through a friend's telescope. The photos through the telescope are no where near as good as the actual sights, but that's largely because we didn't bring any camera equipment. With time, practice, and proper gear, we'd likely have done a lot better. That said, w e also took some pictures just with our phones and the results were a lot more impressive than any of us expected.

A shot of stars through the lens of a telescope

This is the best shot I could get through the telescope eyepiece with my phone. The actual view was great, but the pictures: not so much.

A shot of a starfield and clouds through my iphone camera
A shot of the night sky with just my iPhone on a 10-second exposure.
Another shot of a starfield and clouds through my iphone camera
Turns out that the cameras on our phones are very, very good.

Step Counts And Goal-Setting

In yet more at-home-data-science, I recently decided to take a look at my step count history and see what insights I could gain from visualizing the data. I've been using Pedometer++ to track my daily step count since 2014 and the app conveniently provides a CSV export of all of your daily step totals as well as other related data like distance and floors climbed. I think the results of my investigation are pretty interesting and yield some important insights.

First off, I simply plotted the entire data set to see what it showed. There were three things I noticed immediately.

A chart generated by an R Script that plots my step count since 2014

  1. Lossy Data:
    You may notice that there are several holes in the data. This is because originally, I used Pedometer++ very infrequently. I didn't set a daily goal and I didn't open the app very often. This meant that — after a while — iOS stopped launching the app in the background to collect step data and at one point offloaded the app from my phone to free space.

  2. Two Very Tall Spikes:
    I love seeing immediately identifiable trends in data, and those two spikes intrigued me. The first is my hike along a section of the PCT and the other is my trip to Barcelona and Paris in 2019.

  3. A Sudden Section of Stability:
    This third section is probably the most interesting for our purposes here. During 2021 I decided to start taking my daily walks more seriously. I'd been going on at least one walk per day, but I finally decided to start setting a goal and trying to meet it every single day.

You may also notice the red lines at the bottom of the chart: these are any string of days during which I exceeded my goal (more on that soon). The brown line is the daily goal value itself.

Setting Attainable Goals

I've talked before about how I set arbitrary deadlines and goals for myself. Usually this is done for client projects or my own apps, but importantly it's a thing I do for personal goals too. In the post I wrote this:

I create artificial deadlines and goals, sometimes completely arbitrarily. Often times, I'll just pick a date on the calendar based on nothing but gut intuition, and then I change it later if necessary.

Back in 2021 I wanted to get more rigorous with my daily walks. I wanted to set a goal for myself and make sure I was meeting it as often as possible. This is important. Originally I had considered trying to meet the default in-app goal of 10,000 steps per day. This is a very common step goal for apps and services to suggest because it's a nice, big, round number. But I didn't do that. I went with a much more modest 6,000 steps as my goal.

The reason for this is simple. Like I said I wanted to meet this goal as often as possible — preferably every day. 10,000 steps is a lot to cram into a single day. I routinely surpass 10,000 but I am nowhere close to hitting it every day.

This goal-setting is important. Meeting a goal can be inspiring, but not meeting it is the opposite, and can be disincentivizing. With a goal too high it can be preferable to give up early rather than to try and fail. This runs counter to my goal: walk more. Giving up is bad, and so I wanted to minimize the amount of times I do it. 6,000 steps has been a good number for me because I routinely find myself around 1,000 steps short in the evening, which incentivizes me to go for a walk, which is what I want. And in a positive development, I ended up raising the goal in 2022 to 6,500 steps!

Additional Insights

What's perhaps most interesting to me is what happens when we zoom in on the 2021-2022 section of the data (after I set a daily step goal). Not only does the data become much more consistent because I checked the app daily, but it becomes incredibly regular. The 30-day rolling average (plotted in green) is very close to the daily goal, which implies that if we ignore the extreme days I'm pretty good at meeting my goals. The red streak line at the bottom also helps illustrate this.

A chart generated by an R Script that plots my step count since mid-2021

I also notice that my rolling average is down this year which is something I wasn't expecting! If it continues like this I will be missing my goal regularly, which is bad. Insights like this have helped motivate me to improve and stay on top of my walking schedule.

If there's one thing I can share from this little experiment, it's this: set arbitrary goals, then celebrate once you've hit them.

Fun With Math: Calculating Multiplicative Persistence

I mentioned recently that one of my Raspberry Pis is mounted under my desk and tracking the weather, and I've written other times about the other tasks this helpful little assistant handles for me. Today I'd like to discuss yet another thing that little RPi does all day — something I've been pretty excited about for some time.

But first we need to talk about a thing called Multiplicative Persistence.

What is that?

Put very simply, Multiplicative Persistence is a little number trick you can play with integers. Here's how it works:

  1. Take any number
  2. Multiple the digits of the number together
  3. If this number is greater than 9, do it again. Counting the number of times you do the process.
    467 -> 4 x 6 x 7 = 168 (1)
    168 -> 1 x 6 x 8 = 48  (2)
    48  -> 4 x 8     = 32  (3)
    32  -> 3 x 2     = 6   (4)

Result: 467 has a multiplicative persistence of 4

The goal is to find the smallest number with the greatest persistence value. The current largest persistence ever found is 11 and the smallest number is 277777788888899.

What's special about 277777788888899? - Numberphile

You can learn more about Multiplicative Persistence by watching this great video from Numberphile.

What does this have to do with my Raspberry Pi?

I thought it would be fun to write a little script to calculate the known values with the smallest persistences. There are lots of little tricks you can do to speed up your script (so that you don't have to check every single value), and it was a fun little evening project. Then in June I swapped out the script for a new version that used more of the RPi's cores to speed things up a bit.

The script has been running (nearly) continuously since February, and by my estimates it will reach the current largest persistence value by the end of the year.

The script sends me a push notification (via Pushover) whenever it reaches a new persistence value — which is very exciting. I can't wait to get the next notification because that will mean the script has fulfilled its purpose: finding the largest known value.

Next Steps

For no reason whatsoever, after the script reaches the current largest known value I'm going to turn it loose on some truly enormous numbers to see if it can find the next largest value.

Currently it is theorized that 11 is the largest persistence possible (among all base 10 integers), and according to Matt Parker (in the video) mathematicians have already checked every value with less than 233 digits1, but still there are a lot more numbers to check.

Why? Because it's fun.2

Check out the code here →

1 That's a number that looks like this:

2 Because of some local changes to where San Diego's power comes from, all this computation is powered by 100% clean and renewable energy, so I don't feel bad wasting this (admittedly minute) power for nonsense like this.

Whether To Monitor The Weather And More

Things have been awfully quiet here for the past few months. Lots of other side projects have been taking up my time lately and I haven't felt the need to blog much. I have been doing a lot of reading and writing though and I will hopefully write something about all that stuff soon. For now though, I thought I'd talk about a little side project I've had running for the last half-year.

I have a Raspberry Pi bolted to the bottom of my desk. It's name is Demin1 and it does all kinds of useful things for me. One of those things is collecting the current ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in the room. Originally I intended to chart this data and see if it correlates with me having random headaches. I'd always heard that pressure changes can cause headaches, but I'd never tested the theory myself. Luckily (and unluckily) my headache sample-set this year is far too small to use to reasonably answer this question, but that doesn't mean that Demin's work is all for naught!

My Personal Assistant
Demin at work. That's the sensor hanging off the top

Using a mixture of R, Python, bash, and a SQLite database I've been recording, tracking, and publishing this data for the past several months on an personal website on my local network. But since the data is very cool looking, I figured I'd post the full chart here. I've also uploaded a gist of the code I use to collect the sensor measurements. The script has a small bash wrapper script that is run via cron job which collects new measurements every five minutes. I've also set up a CGI script (yeah really) that allows me to see the most recent measurements from any device on my local network.

My Weather History
The last several months of data. Notice the unseasonably cool July temperatures. Very interesting.

As I've said before, I love doing the odd bit of scripting to automate menial work. I could have just bought a small indoor weather station, but that wouldn't provide me with programatic access to either real-time or historical data. Plus putting this whole thing together was half the fun anyway.

1. Demin is named after the ship's first mate in one of my D&D games. He was a very good first mate and he's a very helpful little computer too.

The Simple Joy Of Learning To Play Piano

Back in January, I started to teach myself how to play piano. I'd played before when I was a kid — like many people do — but I was never very good and it didn't stick once I'd stopped taking lessons. I'd had a keyboard for years, stowed away at my parent's place, but I'd rarely ever used it. I had occasionally tried to pick up piano over the years, but just like when I was a kid: it didn't stick.

My paino setup

This time with the keyboard visible, and in the center of the room, I hoped things would be different. It's been almost four months now, and I am happy to report that I am still practicing and importantly: I'm getting better!

Luckily, I have some music theory under my belt, and I've played guitar, both solo and in bands for years, so I know my way around musically. That said, neither of those skills prepare you to actually play the piano. It helps to know where middle C is and how to make a chord, but neither of those skills help you contort your hands to actually play the notes and chords you want.

That said, I do have two tips that I'd like to share.

Set Simple Goals, Then Iterate

Back in January, I tried to start by simply practicing scales. You know? The thing everyone hates? Well, it turns out they're super useful.

I started with a simple 5-note scale. I played it over and over again: up the scale and back down as smoothly as possible, one hand at a time. Then I would move it up a key and repeat the process. Not all keys are beginner friendly, so I would often skip complicated keys and stick to the easy ones. Once I had that down I started adding in a few little flairs. Instead of just playing the scales I would keep the time and tempo, but work in a few extra notes or I would start at the root and work up, but on the way back down I'd end on the 5th instead of the root. Little changes.

When something is difficult it can be pretty demoralizing if you can't see yourself making progress. That's where small goals come in. Each time I'd sit down to practice (and after a short warm up) I would set a small goal for myself. Sometimes the goal would be so minor that it would hardly seem worthwhile, but I always tried to explicitly set a tangible goal.

It's a slow process, but I am getting measurably better and I can see the results each and every time I sit down to play.

Don't Put it Away

I learned how to play guitar in high school and while my teacher gave me lots of advice, one thing he said always stuck with me. It was advice about how to make sure you keep practicing.

Never put your guitar away, and keep it within reach. That way you can play it whenever you have even a little bit of downtime. Play it while your computer is loading, while you're waiting for a text message, or even while you're watching a video. You don't need to play a song. Even just strumming a chord, or picking a melody can help.

Those little moments of practice add up.

To this day my guitar is within arms reach of my desk, and I play it when I need a break, when I need to think, or even just when I'm bored.

I feel the same idea has helped me learn piano. The keyboard is in the middle of my living room. I have to walk past it to get water, and whenever I do I think about playing. Often times I will play before or after eating, even just for a few minutes.

The little moments really do add up.